1. Water Risk Map
The quantitative risks include net fresh water availability, annual water supply variance, seasonal water supply variance, flooding, drought severity, storage and groundwater stress.
Click on the link to explore the interactive map further. Its highly worthwhile.
Water Risk Locations in South East Asia
What’s even more amazing is to examine the highest and lowest water risk locations for tourism and resort development in South East Asia.
While most coastal locations have benign water risk there are several island locations in the Philippines and Indonesia with extreme risk.
Extreme Water Risk Island Locations
- Bali, Indonesia
- Lombok, Indonesia
- East Java, Indonesia
- East Timor
- Palawan, Philippines
- Samar Island, Philippines
- Mindoro Island, Philippines
- Leyte Island, Philippines
- Camotes Island, Philippines
Low to Medium Water Risk Island Locations
- Phu Quoc, Vietnam
- Phuket, Thailand
- Koh Samui, Thailand
2. Baseline Water Stress Map
Another relevant map is the Baseline Water Stress Map. While the Water Risk Map above measures water supply risks the Baseline Water Stress Map measures freshwater availability.
Unlike the water risk map above, this water stress map looks a lot less alarming.
Definition & Interpretation of Baseline Water Stress
The ratio of total annual freshwater withdrawals for the year 2000, relative to expected annual renewable freshwater supply based on 1950-1990 climatic norms. This ratio provides an assessment of the demand for freshwater from households, industry, and irrigated agriculture relative to freshwater availability in a typical year.
High levels of baseline water stress indicate that demand for freshwater approaches (or exceeds) the annual renewable supply, which leads to greater socioeconomic competition for freshwater and a higher risk of supply disruptions.
Extremely High Water Stress: More than 80% of available water is used. Renewable freshwater is extremely scarce relative to demand. Supply disruptions are likely to occur as the result of natural phenomena, competition from other users, political pressure, or regulatory measures.
Extremely High Water Stress Locations
There are two coastal locations with extreme water stress that immediately stand out:
- Ken Giang province, Vietnam
By combining what you know of both maps doesn’t it appear that Lombok has the most critical water supply risks in all of South East Asia?
The Indonesian government has expressed intention to develop Lombok tourism and followed up with a new airport, Pandanduri fresh water dam and the Mandalika project. The question remains whether Lombok tourism can scale in size without resorting to heavy investment in water supply infrastructure.
Water Risk Map Background Information